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Table of contents

She subsequently became the first factory inspector in the state.

The Women Who Changed Psychology

The League included both working class and middle class women who supported unionization. All too familiar with the limitations placed on women as they tried to break into professions dominated by men, the settlement house workers created or moved into new fields, particularly those dealing with concerns of women and children. Julia Lathrop campaigned against child labor and pushed for a government agency to deal with the matter.

Lathrop became its first administrator and filled her staff with graduates of Hull House.

Women Reformers in the Progressive Era

She supported an independent nursing profession and a public health service. Women had been actively fighting for the right to vote since the Seneca Falls meeting in They finally achieved their goal with the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in Nevertheless, the movement remained largely segregated because white women feared alienating the South and many shared the prejudicial attitudes of the time.

Wells-Barnett founded the first African American women suffrage organization, and both she and Terrell worked hard to gain support for the amendment. Catt was president from , when she resigned to care for her ill husband.

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Anna Howard Shaw, an ordained Methodist minister and gifted orator, took over from Although Shaw worked hard, she was not an efficient administrator, and the NAWSA lost momentum during her term of office. The movement was revitalized through formation of the Congressional Union in Alice Paul and Lucy Burns spearheaded the change, which was influenced by the more radical methods of the British suffrage movement. The new suffragettes picketed the White House and chained themselves to fences. Arrested for their actions, some protested by going on hunger strikes and suffered the ordeal of forced feeding as a result.

Their tactics and the resulting publicity brought sympathy and renewed interest in the movement. It took generations of dedicated women working together to get the Nineteenth Amendment passed. Opponents of the amendment were highly organized and well financed. Businessmen, Southern congressmen, Catholic clergymen and some upper class women were among the groups most strongly opposed. When the amendment came to a vote in the House of Representatives in , everyone knew it would be close. Working as a nurse in the Lower East Side of New York, Sanger witnessed the pain of botched abortions and the suffering associated with unwanted pregnancies.

She pushed for the legalization of birth control, and opened the first clinic to advise women on birth control techniques in Her subsequent arrest for violating a federal law against the dissemination of birth control literature brought the movement national attention.

Sanger continued the fight, and in she organized the America Birth Control League, which later became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. In , Gilman wrote Women and Economics , espousing the view that women would neither reach personal fulfillment nor progress in society until they were free to pursue careers outside of the home.

Like-minded women could be found in the Heterodoxy Club of Greenwich Village. More than any other woman of the period, Emma Goldman addressed the issue of individual freedom. In , she spent 15 days in a workhouse for her speech advocating birth control. Usually under police surveillance of some sort, Goldman was arrested for interfering with the draft and sentenced to two years in jail during World War I. Some women devoted their lives to the labor movement, becoming involved in some of the most violent labor conflicts of the era.

Coal mining conditions at the time were deplorable: hours were long, the pay low, and safety features inadequate. The annual death toll from explosions and mine cave-ins alone was tremendous. But in the conflict between coal companies and labor organizers, most of the weapons were on one side. When miners went on strike, they were commonly evicted from company housing and spent the remainder of the strike in tent communities.

Coal companies hired detectives and mine guards ostensibly to protect their property, but in reality to break the strike. They brought in strike breakers, often new immigrants in search of work. And, they called on willing courts to issue blanket injunctions to prevent almost any union activity.


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Mother Jones was in her eighties when she participated in the West Virginia strike of and the Colorado strike of Both times she was arrested. Two mothers and eleven children died as a result of that attack.

Introduction

Congressional investigations of both strikes criticized the company use of guards and detectives, and cited their brutality as the major factor in the escalation of violence. Founded in , the IWW hoped to form one union composed of workers throughout the world. Since they were refused admittance to company property, they tried to reach the workers at transportation centers.

In retaliation, cities of the region passed ordinances prohibiting public speaking on the streets. Flynn and the IWW then led a free speech campaign, some of whose participants were beaten and jailed for violating city laws. Although the IWW failed to organize the lumbermen, it did win a major strike of mill workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, in The strike demonstrates the interconnections established among women Progressives. But when the children attempted to leave Lawrence, the police attacked parents and children.

The resultant publicity generated sympathy for the mill workers, and the company settled. Although the IWW encouraged workers to participate in civil disobedience but not violence, it never could shake its image of radicalism and was constantly under attack. Flynn managed to stay out of jail at the time, but for joining the Communist Party in , she was sentenced to two years in jail under the Smith Act during the s.

But her own main efforts were on behalf of the Socialist Party. She pushed for the legalization of birth control, and opened the first clinic to advise women on birth control techniques in Her subsequent arrest for violating a federal law against the dissemination of birth control literature brought the movement national attention.

Sanger continued the fight, and in she organized the America Birth Control League, which later became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. In , Gilman wrote Women and Economics , espousing the view that women would neither reach personal fulfillment nor progress in society until they were free to pursue careers outside of the home.

Like-minded women could be found in the Heterodoxy Club of Greenwich Village. More than any other woman of the period, Emma Goldman addressed the issue of individual freedom. In , she spent 15 days in a workhouse for her speech advocating birth control. Usually under police surveillance of some sort, Goldman was arrested for interfering with the draft and sentenced to two years in jail during World War I.

Some women devoted their lives to the labor movement, becoming involved in some of the most violent labor conflicts of the era. Coal mining conditions at the time were deplorable: hours were long, the pay low, and safety features inadequate. The annual death toll from explosions and mine cave-ins alone was tremendous.

But in the conflict between coal companies and labor organizers, most of the weapons were on one side. When miners went on strike, they were commonly evicted from company housing and spent the remainder of the strike in tent communities. Coal companies hired detectives and mine guards ostensibly to protect their property, but in reality to break the strike.

They brought in strike breakers, often new immigrants in search of work. And, they called on willing courts to issue blanket injunctions to prevent almost any union activity. Mother Jones was in her eighties when she participated in the West Virginia strike of and the Colorado strike of Both times she was arrested. Two mothers and eleven children died as a result of that attack. Congressional investigations of both strikes criticized the company use of guards and detectives, and cited their brutality as the major factor in the escalation of violence.

Founded in , the IWW hoped to form one union composed of workers throughout the world. Since they were refused admittance to company property, they tried to reach the workers at transportation centers. In retaliation, cities of the region passed ordinances prohibiting public speaking on the streets. Flynn and the IWW then led a free speech campaign, some of whose participants were beaten and jailed for violating city laws. Although the IWW failed to organize the lumbermen, it did win a major strike of mill workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, in The strike demonstrates the interconnections established among women Progressives.

But when the children attempted to leave Lawrence, the police attacked parents and children. The resultant publicity generated sympathy for the mill workers, and the company settled. Although the IWW encouraged workers to participate in civil disobedience but not violence, it never could shake its image of radicalism and was constantly under attack. Flynn managed to stay out of jail at the time, but for joining the Communist Party in , she was sentenced to two years in jail under the Smith Act during the s. But her own main efforts were on behalf of the Socialist Party.

The Progressive Era introduced muckraking journalism.

The Women Who Changed Psychology

Ida Tarbell and Ida Wells-Barnett were examples among women. Although, for the most part, the Progressive Era neglected African Americans, Ida Wells-Barnett became prominent for her attacks on Jim Crow America, black voter disenfranchisement, and lynching. When a mob in Memphis hanged three of her friends, Wells-Barnett began a one-woman crusade to end the practice of lynching that defined the parameters of life for black Americans in the South.

She believed her friends were lynched not for the usual reason given of protecting white womanhood, but because they were successfully competing with white store owners in the community.

One Up, One Down

She researched lynchings and published her findings in muckraking journals. Prior to , peace organizations were dominated by men, and their emphasis was on international law and stability. With the outbreak of World War I, more women entered the movement as peace groups proliferated and their focus changed. A silent parade of 1, women down Fifth Avenue in New York City in marked the birth of the modern peace movement. They viewed the search for peace as a natural extension of the reform movement.

In , Lillian Wald and Paul Kellogg, editor of the journal Survey , established the American Union Against Militarists, the foremost opponent of military preparedness. It advocated calling upon neutral countries to mediate peace between the warring nations of Europe, and sent delegates to the International Congress of Women.